The way theorists perceive human nature and how people learn is the source of all learning theories. I want to single out Howard Gardner’s notion of multiple intelligences among the learning theories put forth in the latter part of the 20th century. The fact that Gardner referred to a group of abilities, talents, or even intellectual competences as “intelligences” when describing cognitive competency in his theory of human intelligence, or cognitive model, is what first drew the attention of educators throughout the world to MI. Gardner’s intelligences are not entirely independent, but they are nonetheless largely autonomous. The significance of MI for educators appears to lie in their understanding that each child has a unique set of needs.
Gardner’s theory of learning is actually a different perspective from the conventional theory of intelligence (Binet and Simon’s IQ), which is more accurate. A pluralistic theory of intelligence underlies it. Gardner asserts that the MI model has utilised knowledge from cognitive science (the study of the mind) and neuroscience that was not yet available to Binet and Simon in their 1908 study (study of the brain). In MI, intelligence is increasingly seen as a collection of talents. The aspects that these categories (or intelligences) represent—music, speech, reasoning, art, social interaction, physical expression, introspection, and love of nature—can be found in all civilizations. In fact, the MI theory is being applied in a variety of educational settings, with great success, illuminating how cultural circumstances can influence educational practice.
Gardner’s system of intelligences initially listed seven fundamental intelligences. The author included an eighth intellect (naturalist) in a subsequent piece, leaving the door open for the adoption of a ninth intelligence (spiritual). Gardner claims to have investigated a diverse and unrelated range of sources to develop this model, including prodigy studies, talented people, brain-damaged patients, idiot savants, normal children, normal adults, specialists in various fields of study, and people from other cultures. The eight intelligences Gardner postulated are described as having the following skills: 1) proficient language use; 2) logical-mathematical thinking in science and mathematics; 3) taking careful note of things encountered; and 4) the ability to see and manipulate objects in the spatial mind.
4) the ability to comprehend, produce, and appreciate music and musical concepts; 5) the skilful use of one’s own body; 6) the ability to discern minute details in other people’s conduct; 7) self-awareness; and 8) the ability to spot patterns and variations in nature (naturalistic). According to Gardner, intelligence is a human ability that is connected to particular world material (for example, musical sounds or spatial patterns). Additionally, Gardner points out that each of these various intellectual energies, or competences, has its own historical evolution. They are regarded differently by many civilizations around the world precisely because of this.
Finally, according to Gardner, some domains or skills are universal, such as the logical-mathematical one that J. Piaget extensively explored. Piaget basically looks into children’s thoughts to see what makes intellect special and universal. Other areas, nevertheless, are exclusive to particular cultural groups. For instance, the capacity to read or create maps is significant in some cultures but is seen as minor or even unimportant in others.